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2013 Toolkit


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Common Mental Disorders and Misused Substances

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Introduction…

The impact of mental and substance use disorders spans across individuals, families, and communities.  Learning about some of the most common mental disorders and misused substances can help people recognize the signs of behavioral health conditions and ultimately seek help.  This aligns with the aim of National Recovery Month (Recovery Month), an initiative to raise awareness about the many resources available to help prevent these conditions and encourage treatment and recovery.  Recovery Month is sponsored by the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration (SAMHSA), within the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS).

In 2011, 21.6 million Americans aged 12 or older (8.4 percent) needed treatment for an illicit drug or alcohol use problem.1  Of these individuals, only 2.3 million (10.8 percent of those who needed treatment) received treatment at a specialty facility.2  Additionally, among 45.6 million Americans aged 18 and older who experienced any mental illness in 2011, 31.6 million received mental health services during the past 12 months.3

Included in this document are key statistics about common mental illnesses and substances that are often misused.  Also included are alternative names for each disorder or substance; signs, symptoms, and adverse health effects; prevalence; and average age of onset (or age of first-time use of a substance).  Information in the following charts was collected from SAMHSA’s 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health, as well as reports and data released by The Partnership at DrugFree.Org, the National Institute of Mental Health, and the National Institute on Drug Abuse.

The following chart includes information on common mental disorders:


Mental DisorderSigns & Symptoms4,5,6Lifetime Prevalence in the United States Among Adults and Youth (13 to 18 Years Old)7,8,9Average Age of Onset10
Anxiety Disorders
Agoraphobia Intense fear and anxiety of any place or situation where escape might be difficult; avoidance of being alone outside of the home; fear of traveling in a car, bus, or airplane, or of being in a crowded area 2.4 percent of youth;
1.4 percent of adults
20 years old
Generalized Anxiety Disorder An overwhelming sense of worry and tension; irritability; physical symptoms including fatigue, headaches, muscle tension, muscle aches, trouble swallowing, trembling, twitching, sweating, lightheadedness, nausea, and hot flashes 1.0 percent of youth;
5.7 percent of adults
 
31 years old
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD) Persistent and unwelcome anxious thoughts or “obsessions,” often accompanied by rituals that are performed to try to prevent or get rid of them, called “compulsions” (youth data not available);
1.6 percent of adults
 
19 years old
Panic Disorder Feelings of sudden terror that often occur with a pounding heart, sweating, nausea, chest pain, faintness, or dizziness; an avoidance of places or situations where panic attacks have occurred 2.3 percent of youth;
4.7 percent of adults
24 years old
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) Relived trauma after experiencing a terrifying event, through nightmares or disturbing thoughts throughout the day; feelings of detachment, numbness, irritability, or aggressiveness 4.0 percent of youth;
6.8 percent of adults
23 years old
Social Phobia Intense feelings of anxiety and dread about social situations; a persistent fear of being watched and judged by others and being humiliated or embarrassed by the person’s own actions; physical symptoms such as blushing, profuse sweating, trembling, nausea, and difficulty talking 5.5 percent of youth;
12.1 percent of adults
13 years old
Specific Phobia Marked and persistent fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation, such as a fear of heights, spiders, or flying 15.1 percent of youth;
12.5 percent of adults
7 years old
Mood Disorders
Bipolar Disorder Recurrent episodes of highs (mania) and lows (depression) in mood, changes in energy and behavior, extreme irritable or elevated mood, an inflated sense of self-importance, risky behaviors, distractibility, increased energy, and a decreased need for sleep 3.0 percent of youth;
3.9 percent of adults  
25 years old
Major Depressive Disorder A pervading sense of sadness and/or loss of interest or pleasure in most activities that interferes with the ability to work, study, sleep, and eat; negative impact on a person’s thoughts, sense of self-worth, energy, and concentration 11.2 percent of youth;
16.5 percent of adults
32 years old
Other Mental Disorders
Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADD/ADHD) Inattention or difficulty staying focused; hyperactivity, or constantly being in motion or talking; impulsivity, meaning often not thinking before acting 9.0 percent of youth;
8.1 percent of adults
7 years old
Personality Disorder Difficulties dealing with other people and participating in social activities; inflexibility, rigidity, and inability to respond to change; deeply ingrained, inflexible patterns of relating, perceiving, and thinking that cause distress or impaired functioning (youth data not available);
9.1 percent of adults*
 
Not available
Schizophrenia Hearing voices or believing that others are trying to control or harm the person; hallucinations and disorganized speech and behavior, causing individuals to feel frightened, anxious, and confused. (youth data not available);
1.1 percent of adults*
 
Not available

*Indicates 12-month prevalence

The following chart includes information on commonly misused substances:

SubstanceOther Names11,12,13Negative Immediate Intoxication Effects14,15Negative Health Effects16,17Average Age of First Use in 2011 (vs. in 2010) Among People Aged 12 to 49; Current Rate Among Youths (12-17)18Number of People (Aged 12 or Older) Who Used it in the Past Month in 2011 (vs. in 2010)19
Alcohol, Tobacco, and Inhalants
Alcohol Booze, beer, wine, liquor Dizziness, talkativeness, slurred speech, disturbed sleep, nausea, vomiting, impaired judgment and coordination, increased aggression Brain and liver damage, depression, liver and heart disease, hypertension, fetal damage (in pregnant women) 17.1 years (17.2 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 13.3 percent 133.4 million people (similar to 131.3 million people in 2010)
Gases, Nitrites, and Aerosols (Inhalants) Ether, chloro-form, nitrous oxide, isobutyl, isoamyl, poppers, snappers, whippets, laughing gas Increased stimulation, loss of inhibition, headache, nausea, vomiting, slurred speech, loss of motor coordination, wheezing, cramps, muscle weakness Memory impairment, damage to cardiovascular and nervous systems, unconscious-ness 16.4 years (16.3 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 0.9 percent 600,000 people (same number as in 2010)
Tobacco Products Cigarettes, cigars, smokeless tobacco, snuff, spit tobacco, chew Increased blood pressure and heart rate Chronic lung disease; coronary heart disease; stroke; cancer of the lungs, larynx, esophagus, mouth, and bladder; poor pregnancy outcomes 17.2 years (17.3 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 10.0 percent 68.2 million people (similar to 69.6 million people in 2010)
Illicit Drugs
Cocaine Blow, bump, C, candy, Charlie, coke, crack, flake, rock, snow, toot, white lady Increased alertness, attention, and energy; dilated pupils; increased temperature, heart rate, and blood pressure; insomnia; loss of appetite; feelings of restlessness, irritability, and anxiety Weight loss, cardiovascular complications, stroke, seizures 20.1 years (21.2 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 0.3 per-cent 1.4 million people
(similar to 1.5 million
people in 2010)
Ecstasy Adam, E, eve, decadence, M&M, roll, X, XTC Involuntary tooth clenching, a loss of inhibitions, transfixion on sights and sounds, nausea, blurred vision, chills, sweating, increased heart rate and blood pressure, cardiovascular failure Muscle cramping/ sleep disturbances; depression; impaired memory; kidney, liver, and cardiovascular failure;
anxiety
19.6 years (19.4 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available Included in hallu-cinogens data
Hallucinogens Acid, boomers, doses, hits, LSD, microdot, peyote, shrooms, sugar cubes, tabs, trips Dilated pupils, higher body temperature, increased heart rate and blood pressure, sweating, loss of appetite, sleeplessness, dry mouth, tremors Disturbing flashbacks that may occur within a few days or more than a year after use 18.6 years (19.1 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 0.9 percent 972,000 people (down from 1.2 million people in 2010) [includes ecstasy data]
Heroin Big H, blacktar, brown sugar, dope, horse, junk, muc, skag, smack, white horse Alternately wakeful and drowsy states, flushing of the skin, dry mouth, heavy extremities, slurred speech, constricted pupils, droopy eyelids, vomiting, constipation Collapsed veins, infection of the heart lining and valves, abscesses, cellulitis, liver disease, pneumonia, clogged blood vessels, respiratory complications 22.1 years (21.3 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available 281,000 people (similar to 239,000 people in 2010)
Marijuana Blunt, dope, ganja, grass, herb, joint, bud, Mary Jane, pot, reefer, green, trees, smoke, skunk, weed Distorted perception, trouble with thinking and problem solving, loss of motor coordination, increased heart rate Respiratory infection, impaired memory, anxiety, exposure to cancer-causing compounds 17.5 years (18.4 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current use among youths is 7.9
percent
18.1 million people (similar to 17.4 million people in 2010)
Methamphetamine Chalk, crank, crystal, ice, meth, speed, white cross State of high agitation, insomnia, decreased appetite, irritability,
aggression, anxiety, nervousness, convulsions
Paranoia, hallucination, repetitive behavior, delusions of parasites or insects crawling under the skin, psychosis, severe dental problems, heart attack 17.8 years (18.8 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available 439,000 people (similar to 353,000 people in 2010)
Prescription Drugs
Pain Relievers Vike (Vicodin®), oxy, O.C. (Oxycontin®), M (roxanol), school-boy (empirin with codeine), China white, dance fever (Actiq®) Pain relief, euphoria, drowsiness, respiratory depression and arrest, nausea, confusion, constipation, sedation, unconsciousness, restlessness Muscle and bone pain, drowsiness, seizure, coma, respiratory depression, decreased heart rate 21.8 years (21.0 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current non-medical use of prescription pain relievers among youths is 2.3 percent 4.5 million people (down from 5.1 million people in 2010)
Psychotherapeutics Prozac®, Zoloft®, Ritalin® Increased heart rate, blood pressure, and metabolism; feelings of exhilaration and energy; increased mental alertness; rapid or irregular heartbeat; reduced appetite Heart failure; weight loss; tremors and muscle twitching; fevers, convulsions, and headaches; irregular heartbeat and respirations; anxiety; restlessness; paranoia; halluci-nations; delusions of parasites or insects crawling under the skin 22.4 years (22.3 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; rate of current non-medical use of psycho-therap-eutic drugs among youths aged is 2.8 percent 6.1 million people (down from 7.0 million people in 2010)
Sedatives Haldol®, Thorazine®, Navane®, Prolixin®, Mellaril®, Trilafon® Slurred speech, shallow breathing, sluggishness, fatigue, disorientation and lack of coordination, dilated pupils, reduced anxiety, lowered inhibitions Seizures; impaired memory, judgment, and coordination; irritability; paranoid and suicidal thoughts; sleep problems 22.0 years (23.5 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available 231,000 people (down from 374,000 people in 2010)
Stimulants Adderall®,
Ritalin®,
Concerta®
Increased blood pressure and heart rate, constricted blood vessels, increased breathing, cardiovascular failure, lethal seizures Increased hostility or paranoia, dangerously high body temperatures, irregular heartbeat, cardiovascular failure, lethal seizures 22.2 years (21.2 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available 979,000 people (similar to 1.1 million people in 2010)
Tranquilizers Benzos (Mebaral®, Ativan®, Xanax®, Valium®, Nembutal®, Librium®) Slurred speech, shallow breathing, sluggishness, fatigue, disorientation and lack of coordination, dilated pupils, reduced anxiety, lowered inhibitions Seizures; impaired memory, judgment and coordination; irritability; paranoid and suicidal thoughts; sleep problems 24.6 years (24.6 years in 2010) among people aged 12 to 49; youth rate not available 1.8 million people (similar to 2.2 million people in 2010)

Inclusion of websites and resources in this document and on the Recovery Month website does not constitute official endorsement by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services or the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration.


Sources

  1. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health:  Summary of National Findings, NSDUH Series H-44, HHS Publication No.  (SMA) 12-4713.  Rockville, MD:  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012.
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  3. Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, Results from the 2011 National Survey on Drug Use and Health: Mental Health Findings, NSDUH Series H-45, HHS Publication No.  (SMA) 12-4725.  Rockville, MD:  Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration, 2012.
  4. The National Institute of Mental Health.  (n.d.).  The Numbers Count:  Mental Disorders in America.  Retrieved September 14, 2011, from http://www.nimh.nih.gov/statistics/index.shtml.
  5. SAMHSA’s Resource Center to Promote Acceptance, Dignity and Social Inclusion Associated with Mental Health (ADS Center).  (n.d.).  Facts About Common Mental Illnesses.  Retrieved September 15, 2012, from http://stopstigma.samhsa.gov/publications/thefacts.aspx#panic.
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